FILM & TV GLOSSARY

UKFILMNET FILM & TELEVISION PRODUCTION GLOSSARY



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1

180 degree rule

(Last edited: Tuesday, 30 July 2013, 4:41 PM)
the continuity approach to editing which dictates that the camera should stay on one side of the action to ensure consistent spatial relations between objects to the right and left of the frame. The 180-degree line is also called axis of action.

For example filming a conversation requires that the placement of the camera should not present the two speakers in such a way that they both look to be talking towards screen left (or both talking towards screen right) when they should be seen talking in opposite directions

180-degree system

(Last edited: Tuesday, 30 July 2013, 4:41 PM)

the continuity approach to editing which dictates that the camera should stay on one side of the action to ensure consistent spatial relations between objects to the right and left of the frame. The 180-degree line is also called axis of action.

3

3.5 mill

(Last edited: Tuesday, 30 July 2013, 4:41 PM)
Jack plug - or socket - Is a socket and plug combination used in CONSUMER audio goods and equipment (for example iPods and PSP headphone sockets)

It is usually (and sometimes also called) 3.5mm (millimetre) or 2.5mm - depending on the diameter of the barrel of the plug used. (3.5 is much more common)

The connector is not considered professional and is replaced by the XLR connector in professional camera and audio equipment.

A

absolute film

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a film that is nonrepresentational, using form and design to produce its effect and often describable as visual music.

abstract film

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a film that presents recognisable images in such a way that the aim is more poetic than narrative.

abstract form

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a type of filmic organisation in which the parts relate to each other through repetition and variation of such visual qualities as shape, colour, rhythm, and direction of movement. See associational form

academy ratio

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a term for standardised shape of film frame established by the Academy of Motion Pictures and Arts and Sciences. In the original ratio, the frame was 1 1/3 times as wide as it was high (1.33:1); later the width was normalized at 1.85 times the height(1.85:1)

actualities

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an old term for documentaries

aerial perspective

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a cue for suggesting represented depth in the image by presenting objects in the distance less distinctly than those in the foreground

affective fallacy

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a term used in literary criticism to suggest that it is an error to judge a work of art on the basis of its results, especially its emotional effect

affective theory

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theory that deals with the effect of a work of art rather than its creation.

aleatory technique

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an artistic technique that utilises chance conditions and probability. In aleatory film, images and sounds are not planned in advance.

ambient light

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the natural light surrounding the subject, usually understood to be soft.

anamorphic lens

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a lens for making widescreen films using regular Academy ratio frame size. The camera lens takes in a wide field of view and squeezes it onto the frame, and a similar projector lens unsqueezes in onto a wide theatre screen. CinemaScope and Panavision are examples of anamorphic widescreen processes.

angle of framing

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animatic

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A rough television commercial or film produced by photographing or digitally scanning into a computer storyboard sketches and then compiled into a video clip with the audio portion synchronised to the pictures. Used primarily for testing purposes.

animation

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any process whereby artificial movement is created by photographing a series of drawings or computer images one by one.

aperture

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The aperture is the term used to describe the size of the hole in the front of the camera that permits light to enter and fall on the film (or the electronic image sensor) that is collecting the light. The device that controls the size of the aperture is known as the iris. Hence the setting that measures the iris 'hole' size is known as the aperture.

Aperture is measured in f-stops and these range from f1.4 (fully open) through f2.0, f2.8, f4, f5., f8, f11 and f16, right up to f22 (fully closed). I.e. the larger the f-stop number the smaller the aperture size-the smaller the size of the hole permitting light into the camera. f1 .4 permits twice as much light as f2.0 and f2 .0 permits twice as much lighting as f2 .8.


artisanal production

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a production in contrast to the mass production of studio production. A filmmaker, producer, and crew devote their energy to making a single film.

aspect ratio

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the relationship of the television or film frame's width to its height.

associational form

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a type of organisation in which the film's parts are juxtaposed to suggest similarities, contrasts, concepts, emotions, and expressive qualities.

asynchronous sound

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sound that is not matched with image, as when dialogue is out of sync with lip movements

attraction

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Eisenstein's theory of film analyses the image as a series or collection of attractions, each in a dialectical relationship with the others. In this theory, attractions are thus basic elements of film form.

auteur policy

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politique des auteurs, first stated by Francois Truffaut in his article "Une certaine tendance du cinema francais" in Cahiers du cinema in 1954, suggests that one person, usually director, has the artistic responsibility for a film and reveals a personal worldview through the tensions among style, theme, and the conditions of production. It argues that films can be studied like novels and paintings as a product of an individual artist.

autuer

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an "author" of a film, usually identified as the director, especially a director with a recognisable style and whose personal vision dominates the film or filmmaking process, as opposed to just a "metteur en scene" whose direction is considered more like craftsmanship.

avant garde

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artists who are more intellectually or aesthetically advanced than are their contemporaries (if we assume that art is progressing). Avant garde films are generally non-narrative in structure.

axis of action

(Last edited: Tuesday, 30 July 2013, 4:41 PM)

In the continuity editing system, the imaginary line that passes from side to side through a main actors, defining the spatial relations of all the elements of the scene as being to the right or the left. It is also called the 180-degree line. When the camera crosses this axis at a cut, those spatial relations are reversed thereby confusing the audience. It is one of cardinal rules of continuity editing not to cross this axis during a sequence.

B

backlighting

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lighting cast onto the figures from the side opposite the camera. It creates a thin outline of light on the figures' edge.

barn doors

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Barn doors are an attachment fitted to the front of lights used in films, television, and theatres.

The attachment has the appearance of a large set of barn doors, but in fact there are four leaves, two larger and widening on the outside, two smaller and getting narrower towards the outside. They facilitate shaping of the beam of light from the fixture, and prevent the distinctive scatter of light created by the Fresnel lens from spilling into areas where it is not wanted, such as the eyes of audience members. Barn doors are mounted with a ring that fits inside of the colour gel slot on the instrument. Because of this, barn doors have a gel slot built in to them, so the light can still be coloured. Depending on the size and local practices, barn doors may be attached to the pipe or the instrument with their own safety cable.

bird's eye view

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seeing from a high enough view or altitude as to give a comprehensive view of a scene; also known as aerial view.

boom

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a pole upon which a microphone can be suspended above the scene is being filmed and which is used to change the microphone's position as the action shifts.

boom mic

(Last edited: Tuesday, 30 July 2013, 4:41 PM)
a boom mic is a type of microphone which is mounted (usually with shock absorbing springs or chords to avoid noises) at the end of a "Boom pole" or "fishing pole" which itself is a long extendable/telescopic pole that allows the Boom Operator to reach OVER a presenter or actor and lower the microphone as close in to a presenter or actors direction of speech but WITHOUT the boom pole or rod (or MIC) appearing in the frame.

The microphone used at the end of the boom pole is USUALLY a "shot-gun" or "directional" microphone which is therefore often called a BOOM Mic

boom Operator

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A boom operator is an assistant to the location sound mixer. Their main role is microphone placement, sometimes using a "fishpole" or "boom pole" with a microphone attached to the end and sometimes, when the situation permits, using a "boom" (often a Fisher boom) which is a more intricate and specialized piece of equipment that the operator stands on, and that allows precise control of the microphone at a much greater distance away from the actors. He or she will also attach wireless microphones to actors, celebrities and anyone whose voice requires recording.

The boom operator must decide where to place the boom microphone based on a combination of factors, including the location and projection of any dialogue, the frame position of the camera, the source of lighting (and hence shadows) and any unwanted noise sources.

bridging shot

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a shot used to cover a jump in time or place or other discontinuity. Falling calendar pages, newspaper headlines, railroad wheels, seasonal changes are some of examples.

C

cahiers du cinema

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a seminal film journal founded by Andre Bazin, Jacques Doniol-Valcroze, and Lo Duca in 1951. Godard, Truffaut, Chabrol, Rohmer, Rivette, and others who later became New Wave directors wrote for it and postulated the auteur policy.

camera angle

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the position of the frame in relation to the subject it shows. A high angle is when camera is looking down, low angle when looking up.

camera movement

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onscreen impression that the framing is changing with respect to the scene being photographed. This is usually achieved by actual movement of camera but also by a zoom lens or special effects.

camera-stylo

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meaning "camera-pen", a phrase used by Alexandre Astruc to suggest that the art of film is equal in flexibility and range to older arts, such as novel and the essay.

canted framing

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a view in which the frame is not level. Either right or left side is lower, causing objects in the scene to appear tipped.

categorical form

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a type of filmic organization in which the parts treat distinct parts of some subject. For example, a film about U.S. might be organized into fifty parts, each devoted to a single state.

cel animation

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animation that uses a series of drawings on pieces of celluloid (called "cel" for short). Slight changes between the drawings combine to create an illusion of movement.

change-over cue

(Last edited: Tuesday, 30 July 2013, 4:41 PM)
small dot or other mark in the top right-hand corner of the frame, often in series, that signals the projectionist to switch from one projector to another(recently popularized as "cigarette burn" in the movie Fight Club)

cheat cut

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in the continuity editing system, a cut which presents continuous time from shot to shot but which mis-matches the position of figures or objects

cinema verite

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a cinema that utilized lightweight equipment, two-person crews (camera and sound), and interview techniques. It is also now often used loosely to refer to any kind of documentary technique. See direct cinema.

cinematography

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A general term for all the roles of the cinematographer whose principle task is responsibility for all aspects of the visual look and style of the film. This include the lighting positioning and styles, and camera framing and movement. S/he may also be responsible therefore for the choice of lenses, filters and grip to achieve the creative, narrative and emotional audience response desired by the director.

close-up

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a framing in which the scale of the object shown is relatively large, most commonly a person's head seen from the neck up, or an object of a comparable size that fills most of the screen.

closure

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the degree to which the ending of a narrative film reveals the effects of all the casual events and resolves all lines of action.

colour filter

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A colour gel or colour filter, or a lighting gel or simply gel, is a transparent coloured material that is used in theatre, event production, photography, videography and cinematography to colour light and for colour correction.

Modern gels are thin sheets of polycarbonate or polyester, placed in front of a lighting fixture in the path of the beam. Gels have a limited life, especially in saturated colours. The colour will fade or even melt, depending upon the energy absorption of the colour, and the sheet will have to be replaced. In permanent installations and some theatrical uses, coloured glass filters or dichroic filters are being used. The main drawbacks are additional expense and a more limited selection.

Compact fluorescent

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A compact fluorescent light (or CFL) is a fluorescent lamp that is increasingly aimed at replacing traditional incandescent lamps (tungsten lighting) as compact arrest and lights are generally agrees to use one 5th to 1/3 the electric power and last 8 to 15 times longer than traditional tungsten lighting. A fluorescent lamp is a gas discharge lamp whereby light is created by the passing of an electrical signal through a usually mercury vapour. This electric field excites the Mercury atoms to produce shortwave ultraviolet light which then causes a phosphor to fluoresce producing what we recognise as visible light.

connote

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A concept can "connote" a particular meaning (or set of close ideas) that goes beyond its defined meaning. It is something else implied. Connotations may be universally understood or may be significant only to a certain group of people or cultures.

A rose may connote romance, for example, beyond its direct meaning as a flower

continuity editing

(Last edited: Tuesday, 30 July 2013, 4:41 PM)
a system of cutting to maintain continuous and narrative action. It relies upon matching screen direction, position, and temporal relations from shot to shot to give spatial and temporal unity between shots.

contrast

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in the cinematography, the difference between the brightest and the darkest areas within the frame.

contrast Ratio

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Contrast Ratio is a measurement of the difference in brightness between the whitest white and the darkest black within an image. A ratio of 300:1 means the brightest point in the image is 300 times as bright as the darkest point. A higher contrast ratio therefore means a larger difference in brightness.

Contrast ratio is of interest in two situations:

  1. Cameras: When recording an image (video, film, photography) # TVs, Monitors, etc.

  2. TV Monitors etc - When choosing or setting up a playback device (TV, computer monitor, etc)

Covering

(Last edited: Tuesday, 30 July 2013, 4:41 PM)
Covering Is a term used by film or television directors that expresses their way of choosing camera angles and camera moves and different shot types to ensure the footage encompasses (or ‘covers’) the action and dialogue in the script. Hence the term ‘cover shot’ which is usually understood-in film making - to mean a wide-angle shot of the entire scene that covers all the action. The more common name for a cover shot is the ‘master shot’. In photography however the term cover shot is usually referred to as a master shot or photograph used for the cover of a publication.

Covering a scene can be achieved by using a single ‘master shot’ or cover shot, but more usually refers to the process of filming and gathering a range of different shot types (wide-angle, extreme close-up etc) in order to give the editor and director creative choices in the editing process after filming.


crane shot

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a shot with a change in framing accomplished by having the camera on the crane and moving through the air in any direction.

crosscutting

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editing that alternates shots of two or more lines of action occurring in different places, usually simultaneous.

cut (1)

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in filmmaking, the joining of two strips of film together with a splice.

cut (2)

(Last edited: Tuesday, 30 July 2013, 4:41 PM)
in the finished film, an instantaneous change from one framing to another.

cut-in

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an instantaneous shift from a distant framing to a closer view of some portion of the same space.

D

decoupage

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the design of the film, arrangement of its shots. "Decoupage classique" is the French term for the old Hollywood style of seamless narration.

deep focus

(Last edited: Tuesday, 30 July 2013, 4:41 PM)
a use of the camera lens and lighting that keeps both the close and distant planes being photographed in sharp focus.

deep space

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an arrangement of mise-en-scene element so that there is a considerable distance between the plane closest to the camera and the one farthest away. Any or all of these planes may be in focus.

depth of field

(Last edited: Tuesday, 30 July 2013, 4:41 PM)

the measurements of the closest and farthest planes in front of camera lens between which everything will be in sharp focus. For example, a depth of field from 5 to 16 feet would mean everything closer than 5 feet and farther than 16 ft would be out of focus.

dialectics

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the system of thought that focuses on contradictions between opposing concepts; in the Marxian sense of the term, historical change occurs through the opposition of conflicting forces and ideas. It is related to Eisenstein's idea that studied juxtaposition of images, often of opposite nature (thesis and antithesis), creates a new meaning in synthesis, which was not present in either image. See montage.

dialogue overlap

(Last edited: Tuesday, 30 July 2013, 4:41 PM)

in editing a scene, arranging the cut so that a bit of dialogue or noise coming from shot A is heard under a shot of a character B or of another element in the scene.

diegesis

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in a narrative film, the world of the film's story. It includes events that are presumed to have occurred and actions and spaces not shown onscreen.

diegetic sound

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any voice, musical passage, or sound effect presented as originating from a source within the film's world. See nondiegetic sound.

DIGITAL CINEMATOGRAPHY

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Digital Cinematography is the process of capturing motion pictures as digital images, rather than on film. Digital capture may occur on tape, hard disks, flash memory, or other media which can record digital data. As digital technology has improved, this practice has become increasingly common. Many mainstream Hollywood movies now are shot partly or fully digitally.

direct cinema

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the dominant style of documentary in the U.S. since the early 60's. Like cinema verite, it depends on lightweight, mobile equipment, but unlike it, it does not permit the filmmaker to become involved in the action, and, in fact, is noted for its avoidance of narration.

direct sound

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music, noise, and speech recorded from the event at the moment of filming; opposite of post synchronization.

discontinuity editing

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any alternative system of joining shots together using techniques unacceptable within continuity editing principles. Possibilities include mismatching of temporal and spatial relations, violations of the axis of action, and concentration on graphic relationships. See elliptical editing, intellectual montage, nondiegetic insert.

dissolve

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a transition between two shots during which the image of first shot gradually disappears while the image of the second shot gradually appears; for a moment the two images blend in superimposition.

distance of framing

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the apparent distance of the frame from the mise-en-scene elements. Also called "camera distance" and "shot scale". Close-up and medium long shot are examples of terms referring to distance of framing.

dolly

(Last edited: Tuesday, 30 July 2013, 4:41 PM)
a camera support with wheels, used in making tracking shots.

drawing power

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The concept of the drawing power of the lens is a lesser-known and somewhat specialist term used in photography and cinematography.

At its simplest, the drawing power of the lens relates to how rapidly an object's furthest components fall away to the vanishing point of a shot, compared to those nearest. It relates to how angler the perspective of a shot it. If you think about a shot featuring a skyscraper, a lens with high drawing power would show quickly tapering tops of the sky scrapers, as the higher floors are further away. Thus typically wider angle lenses (those with a shorter focal length) have a greater drawing power than normal focal length or long (telephoto) lenses.

E

ECU

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editing (1)

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in filmmaking, the task of selecting and joining camera takes.

editing (2)

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in the finished film, the set of techniques that governs the relationship among shots.

ellipsis

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the shortening of plot duration achieved by omitting intervals of story duration.

elliptical editing

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shot transitions that omit parts of an event, causing ellipsis in plot and story duration.

epic theatre

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in Brecht's theory, theatre that appeals more to the audience's reason than to his feeling. See estrangement effect and theatre of cruelty.

establishing shot

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a shot, usually involving a distant framing, that shows the spatial relations among the important figures, objects, and setting in a scene.

estrangement effect

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In Brecht's theory, the desirable effect which keeps both audience and actors intellectually separate from the action of the drama. It provides intellectual distance.

exploitation film

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a film designed to serve a particular need or desire of the audience. Examples include blaxploitation, sexploitation, etc.

exposure

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a measure of the amount of light striking the surface of the film. Overexposed film gives a very light, washed out, dreamy quality to the print image while underexposed makes the image darker, muddy, and foreboding.

expressionism

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an approach that makes liberal use of technical devices and artistic distortion and in which the personality of the director is always paramount and obvious. See German expressionism and formalism.

external diegetic sound

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sound represented as coming from a physical source within the story space and which we assume characters in the scene also hear. See internal diegetic sound.

extreme close up

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a framing in which the scale of object is very large; most commonly, a small object or a part of the body. Also called detail shot

extreme close-up

(Last edited: Tuesday, 30 July 2013, 4:41 PM)
a framing in which the scale of object is very large; most commonly, a small object or a part of the body. Also called detail shot

extreme long shot

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a framing in which the scale of the object shown is very small; a panoramic view of an exterior location photographed from a considerable distance, often as far as a quarter-mile away.

eyeline match

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a cut obeying the axis of action principle, in which the first shot shows a person looking off in one direction and the following shot shows a nearby space containing what he or she sees. If the person looks left, the following shot should imply that the looker is off-screen right.

F

fade (1)

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a dark screen that gradually brightens as a shot appears.

fade (2)

(Last edited: Tuesday, 30 July 2013, 4:41 PM)

a shot gradually darkens as the screen goes black (or brightens to pure white or to a colour).

fast motion

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The film is shot at less than 24 frames per second so that when it is projected at normal speed, action appears to move much faster. (A slow motion is achieved when film is shot faster than 24 frames and projected at normal speed.) Also called accelerated motion.

field mixer

(Last edited: Tuesday, 30 July 2013, 4:41 PM)
field or location Mixer - A mixer that is used on site at the location of a film, tv or radio production that allows the location sound supervisor to both connect together and then mix the sound sources from different sources on a film or TV location, including presenters, actors and location sound sources.

The mixer is usually much smaller than mixers used in recording studios and will either be a table top mixer with 8-12 channel inputs (often mounted on a rack of sound equipment) or worn over the shoulder by the location sound supervisor.

Shoulder worn location mixers usually have fewer inputs - between 2 to 6 inputs)

In both cases the OUTPUT of the mixer - which can be 2,3,4 or more sound signals) is sent EITHER back into the main camera (which can often record 2,4 or 8 tracks of audio at the same time) or a portable sound recording device.

fill light

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lighting from a source less bright than the key light, used to soften deep shadows and illuminate areas not covered by key light. Also called filler light. See three-point lighting.

film noir

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French for "dark film", a term applied by French critics to a type of American film, usually in the detective or thriller genres, with low-key lighting and a sombre - often fatalistic - mood, especially common in the late 40's and early 50's.

film stock

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or simply film, the strip of material upon which a series of still photographs is registered; it consists of a clear base coated on one side with light-sensitive emulsion.

filter

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a piece of glass or geltine placed in front of camera or printer lens to alter the quality(colour) or quantity of light striking the film in aperture.

flash cutting

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editing the film into shots of very brief duration that succeed each other rapidly.

flash frame

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a shot of only a few frames duration, which can just barely perceived by the audience.

flashback

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an alteration of story order in which the plot moves back in time to show events that have taken place earlier than the one already shown.

flashforward

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an alteration of story order in which the plot moves forward to future events, then returns to the present.

fluoresce

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Fluorescence is the way in which light is emitted by substance due to the way in which that substance has absorbed either light or other forms of electromagnetic radiation. High Street neon lights are an example of fluorescent lights. See compact fluorescent lighting.

focal length

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the distance from the centre of lens to the point at which the light rays meet in sharp focus. The focal length determines the perspective relations of the space represented on the flat screen.

focus

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the degree to which light rays coming from the same part of an object through different parts of the lens reconverge at the same point on the film frame, creating sharp outlines and distinct textures.

focus in, out

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a punctuation device in which the image gradually comes into focus or goes out of the focus.

following shot

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a shot with framing that shifts to keep a moving figure onscreen; that is, a shot that follows a moving figure.

forelengthening

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the linear distortion caused by wide-angle lens; the perception of depth is exaggerated.

foreshortening

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the distortion caused by a telephoto lens; the illusion of depth is compressed.

form

(Last edited: Tuesday, 30 July 2013, 4:41 PM)
the general system of relationships among the parts of a film

formalism (1)

(Last edited: Tuesday, 30 July 2013, 4:41 PM)
the theory that meaning exists primarily in the form or language of discourse rather than in the content or subject.

formalism (2)

(Last edited: Tuesday, 30 July 2013, 4:41 PM)
the Soviet movement of the 1920's that developed these ideas.

formative theory

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theory that deals with form rather than function or subject.

forms, open and closed

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in form, the frame drastically limits the space of the scene, suggest that the limits of the frame are the limits of artistic reality. In form, mise-en-scene and design elements of the frame conspire to make the audience aware of the continuous space beyond the limits of the frame suggesting that reality continues outside the frame.

frame (1)

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a single image on the strip of film. When a series of frames are projected onto a screen in quick succession (currently 24 frames per second), an illusion of movement is created.

frame (2)

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the size and shape of the image on the screen when projected.

frame (3)

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the compositional unit to film design.

framing

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the use of edges of the film to select and to compose what will be visible onscreen.

freeze frame

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a freeze shot, which is achieved by printing a single frame many times in succession to give the illusion of a still photograph when projected.

frequency

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in a narrative film, the aspect of temporal manipulation that involves the number of times any story event is shown in the plot.

frontal lighting

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lighting directed into the scene from a position near the camera.

frontal projection

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a method of combining images. Live action is filmed against a highly reflective screen on which an image from a slide or movie projector is projected by means of mirrors along the axis of the taking lens so that there are no visible shadows cast by the actors. When the screen is exceptionally reflective and the live actors are well lit, no image from the projector should be visible on the actors or props in front of the screen.

frontality

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in staging, the positioning of figures so that they face the viewer.

full shot

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a shot of a subject that includes the entire body and not much else.

function

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the role or effect of any element within the film's form.

G

gauge

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The width of the film strip, measured in millimetres. 35mm is most commonly used filmstock, 65mm and 70mm are used for major epic productions.

gel

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A colour gel or colour filter, or a lighting gel or simply gel, is a transparent coloured material that is used in theatre, event production, photography, videography and cinematography to colour light and for colour correction.

Modern gels are thin sheets of polycarbonate or polyester, placed in front of a lighting fixture in the path of the beam. Gels have a limited life, especially in saturated colours. The colour will fade or even melt, depending upon the energy absorption of the colour, and the sheet will have to be replaced. In permanent installations and some theatrical uses, coloured glass filters or dichroic filters are being used. The main drawbacks are additional expense and a more limited selection.

generation

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the film in the camera when the shot is taken is "first generation". A print of this negative will be "second generation". An internegative made from this positive will be "third generation" and so on. Each generation marks a progressive deterioration in the quality of the image.

generative theory

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a theory that deals with the phenomenon of the production of a film rather than the consumption of it. See affective theory.

genres

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various types of films which audiences and filmmakers recognize by their familiar narrative conventions. Common genres are musical, gangster, and western films.

German expressionism

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a style of film common in Germany in the twenties, characterized by dramatic lighting, distorted sets, and symbolic action and character.

graphic match

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two successive shots joined so as to create a strong similarity of compositional elements (ex. colour, shape).

H

hard lighting

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lighting that creates sharp-edged shadows.

hard-key lighting

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lighting that creates comparatively little contrast between the light and dark areas of the shot. Shadows are fairly transparent and brightened by fill light.

height of framing

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the height of the camera above the ground, regardless of camera angle

I

ideology

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a relatively coherent system of values, beliefs, or ideas shared by some social group and often taken for granted as natural or inherently true.

intellectual montage

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the juxtaposition of a series of images to create an abstract idea not present in any image. See montage.

internal diegetic sound

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sound represented as coming from the mind of character within the story space. Although we and the character can hear it, we assume that the other characters cannot. See external diegetic sound.

interpretation

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the viewer's activity of analyzing the implicit and symptomatic meanings suggested in a film.

iris

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a round, moving mask that contracts to close down to end an scene or emphasize a detail, or opens to begin a scene or to reveal more space around a detail.

J

jack plug

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jack plug - or socket - Is a socket and plug combination used in CONSUMER audio goods and equipment (for example iPods and PSP headphone sockets)

It is usually (and sometimes also called) 3.5mm (millimetre) or 2.5mm - depending on the diameter of the barrel of the plug used. (3.5 is much more common)

The connector is not considered professional and is replaced by the XLR connector in professional camera and audio equipment.


jump cut

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an elliptical cut that appears to be an interruption of a single shot. It occurs within a scene rather than between scenes, to condense the shot. Either the figures seem to change instantly against a constant background, or the background changes instantly while the figures remain constant.

K

key light

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in the three-point lighting system, the brightest light coming into the scene. See also backlighting and fill light

L

language

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in semiotics, cinema is considered a language because it is a means of communication, but it is not necessarily a language system because it does not follow the rules of written or spoken language.

lapel Mic

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A lapel microphone or lavalier (or lav mic) is a small electret or dynamic microphone used for television, theatre, film and public speaking applications, in order to allow hands-free operation.

They are most commonly provided with small clips for attaching to collars, ties, or other clothing. The cord may be hidden by clothes and either run to a radio frequency transmitter in a pocket or clipped to a belt (for mobile work), or directly to the mixer (for stationary applications).

lavalier Mic

(Last edited: Tuesday, 30 July 2013, 4:41 PM)
lapel microphone or lavalier (or lav mic) is a small electret or dynamic microphone used for television, theatre, film and public speaking applications, in order to allow hands-free operation.

They are most commonly provided with small clips for attaching to collars, ties, or other clothing. The cord may be hidden by clothes and either run to a radio frequency transmitter in a pocket or clipped to a belt (for mobile work), or directly to the mixer (for stationary applications).

Lighting diagram

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A lighting diagram, whether hand drawn or using computer software, is an illustration or diagram that explains (usually in plan view) the layout, types of lighting and lighting modification and camera position of a particular lighting composition. Although there are no universally agreed symbols, there are nonetheless, some widely agreed symbolic conventions representing different types of light and modification.

lighting practicals

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Lighting practicals are a collective term for any single or number of lights that can seen by an audience within shot and which (usually but not always) originate light that is used in the final scene. Examples of lighting practicals include bed side table lamps, candles, desk lamps, torches (flash lights) and indeed any form of lighting where it is evidence to the audience that the light might naturally be expected to come from such light sources.

linearity

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in a narrative, the clear motivation of a series of causes and effects that progress without significant digressions, delays, or irrelevant actions.

location sound supervisor

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Location sound supervisor - The individual on set ultimately responsible for the correct recording and mixing of all sound sources on the film or TV location or studio.

He or she is in charge of all aspects of sound and often works with a Boom Operator

long shot

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a framing in which the scale of the object shown is small; a standing human figure would appear nearly the height of the screen.

long take

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a shot that continues for an unusually lengthy time before the transition to the next shot.

low-key lighting

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lighting that creates strong contrast between light and dark areas of the shot, with deep shadows and little fill light.

M

mask

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an opaque screen placed in the camera or printer that blocks part of the frame off and changes the shape of photographed image, leaving part of the frame a solid colour. As seen on the screen, most masks are black, although they could be white or coloured.

match cut

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a cut in which two shots joined are linked by visual, aural, or metaphorical parallelism. For example, at the end of North by Northwest, Cary Grant pulls Eva Marie Saint up the cliff of Mt. Rushmore; then match cut to Grant pulling her up to a bunk in the train.

materialist cinema (1)

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a contemporary movement, mainly in avant-garde cinema, which celebrates the physical fact of film, camera, light, projector, and in which the materials of art are in fact its main subject matter.

matte shot

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a type of process shot in which different areas of the image (usually actors and setting) are photographed separately and combined in laboratory work.

McGuffin

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Alfred Hitchcock's term for the device or plot element that catches the viewer's attention or drives the logic of the plot, but often turns out to be insignificant or is to be ignored after it has served its purpose. Examples are mistaken identity at the beginning of North by Northwest and the entire Janet Leigh subplot of Psycho.

MCU

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See medium close up

meaning - Explicit

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meaning: meaning expressed overtly, usually in language and often near the film's beginning or end.

meaning - Implicit

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meaning: meaning left tacit, for the viewer to discover upon analysis or reflection.

meaning - Referential

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meaning: allusion to particular pieces of shared prior knowledge outside the film which the viewer is expected to recognize.

meaning - Symptomatic

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meaning: meaning which the film divulges, often "against its will", by virtue of its historical or social context.

medium close-up

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a framing in which the scale of the object shown is fairly large; a human figure seen from the chest up fill most of the screen.

medium long shot

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a framing at a distance which makes an object about 4 or 5 feet high appear to fill most of the screen vertically. See plan americain, the special term for a medium long shot depicting human figures.

medium shot

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a framing in which the scale of the object is of moderate size; a human figure seen from the waist up would fill most of the screen.

melodrama

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originally, simply a drama with music; more precisely, the type of 19th century drama that centred on the simplistic conflict between heroes and villains.

metteur en scene

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a modest - sometimes derogatory - term for "director". See auteur.

mic

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mic - See Microphone

microphone

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microphone - (often abbreviated to mic) Is an electrical device that converts sound vibrations into electrical signals that can then be recorded or amplified.

Types of microphones vary widely from vocal mics, to lapel (clothing attached) microphones to direction / shotgun mics for recording sound from a particular direction on a TV or film set.

Microphones vary greatly in sensitivity and choosing the wrong microphone for a particular job can result in recordings that are either too quiet, inaudible or badly distorted.

Microphones generate what is known as "MIC LEVEL" signals (which are electrical signals generally 100 times quieter than LINE LEVEL signals - which come from cameras, CD players and iPods)

mimesis

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a Greek word for "imitation", a term important in the Realist school.

minimal cinema

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a kind of extreme, simplified realism, best exemplified by films of Carl Dreyer, Robert Bresson, and early Andy Warhol; minimal dependence on the technical power of the medium.

mise-en-scene

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all the elements placed in front of the camera to be photographed, that is, part of the cinematic process that take place on the set, as opposed to montage, which takes place afterward. It includes the settings and props, lighting, costumes and make-up, and figure behaviour. Mise-en-scene tends to be very important to realists, montage to expressionists.

mise-en-shot

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the design of an entire shot, in time as well as space.

mixer

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1. The person or role involved in mixing audio or video signals (the location sound mixer, or the vision mixer when applied to the role of the person responsible for mixing live video feeds during a television studio production)

2. The equipment used to mix (usually but not exclusively) audio signals from a number of sources into a single output (stereo or otherwise). This is done using channel faders. The equipment is either body worn, desk mounted or rack mounted.

mixing

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combining two or more sound tracks by recording them onto a single one.

mobile frame

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the effect on the screen of moving camera, a zoom lens, or special effects shifting the frame in relation to the scene being photographed.

monochromatic colour design

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colour design which emphasizes a narrow set of shades of a single colour.

montage (1)

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a synonym for editing.

montage (2)

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an approach to editing developed by the Soviet filmmakers of the 1920's; it emphasizes dynamic, often discontinuous, relationships between shots and the juxtaposition of images to create ideas not present in either one by itself. Also called montage of attraction.

montage (3)

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dynamic cutting - a highly stylized form of editing, often with the purpose of providing a lot of information in a short period of time.

montage sequence

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a segment of film that summarizes a topic or compresses a passage of time into brief symbolic or typical image. Frequently, dissolves, fades, superimpositions, and wipes are used to link the images in a montage sequence.

motif

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an recurrent thematic element in a film that is repeated in a significant way.

Motivated light

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Motivated light is an artificial light source that creates an effect that is seen within the frame, but which is understood and believed by the audience to be caused or 'motivated' by an unseen or indeed visible 'real world' light source (and not the technical light source used by the lighting director or cinematographer)

motivation

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the justification given in film for the presence of an element

multiple exposure

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a number of images printed over each other.

multiple image

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a number of images printed beside each other within the same frame, often showing different camera angles of same action, or separate actions. Also called split screen

N

narration

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the process through which the plot conveys or withholds story information. It can be more or less restricted to character knowledge and more or less deep in presenting characters' mental perceptions and thoughts.

narrative film

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a film that tells a story, as opposed to poetic film.

narrative form

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a type of filmic organization in which the parts relate to each other through a series of causally related events taking place in a specific time and space.

naturalism

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a theory of literature and film which supposes a scientific determinism such that the actions of character are predetermined by biological, sociological, economic, or psychological laws. Not to be confused with realism.

neorealism

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a style of filmmaking identified with Italian directors such as Vittorio De Sica, Roberto Rossellini, and Luchino Visconti in the mid- and late 1940's and characterized by the use of nonprofessional actors, location shooting, and some hand-held camerawork, and political messages.

new wave (1)

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the group of filmmakers (Godard, Truffaut, Chabrol, Rohmer, Rivette, etc) who began as critics on Cahiers du cinema in the 1950's and who were influenced by Andre Bazin. Also called Nouvelle Vague.

new wave (2)

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more loosely, the young French filmmakers of the 1960's, or any new group of filmmakers.

nickelodeon

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the earliest film theatres, the term stemming from the admission price of five cents.

nondiegetic insert

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a shot or series of shots cut into a sequence, showing objects represented as being outside the space of the narrative.

nondiegetic sound

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sound represented as coming from outside the space of the narrative, such as mood music or a narrator's commentary.

nonsimultaneous sound

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diegetic sound that comes either earlier or later than the accompanying image of the source.

O

offscreen sound

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simultaneous sound from a source assumed to be in the space of the scene but in an area outside what is visible onscreen.

offscreen space

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the six areas blocked from being visible on the screen but still part of the space of the scene: to four sides of the frame, behind the set, and the behind the camera.

one-reeler

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a film of ten to twelve minutes in duration.

order

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in a narrative film, temporal manipulation of the sequence in which the chronological events of the story are arranged in the plot.

over the shoulder shot

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Looking from behind a person at the subject, cutting off the frame just behind the ear. The person facing the subject should occupy about 1/3 of the frame.

This shot helps to establish the positions of each person, and get the feel of looking at one person from the other's point of view.

overlap

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a cue for suggesting depth in the film image by placing closer objects partly in front of more distant ones.

overlapping editing

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cuts that repeat part or all of an action, thus expanding its viewing time and plot duration.

P

pan

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movement of camera from left to right or vice versa on a stationary tripod. On the screen, it produces a mobile framing which scans the space horizontally. Not to be confused with tracking shot.

pantheon

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the system of rating directors in hierarchical categories common to the auteur policy. Pantheon directors are the highest rated.

persona

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from the Latin for "mask", a character in a literary, cinematic, or dramatic work. More precisely, the psychological image of the character that is created, especially in the relationship to the other levels of reality.

pixilation

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a form of single-frame animation in which three-dimensional objects, often people, are made to move in staccato bursts through the use of stop-action cinematography thereby breaking the illusion of the continuous movement.

plan americain

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a framing in which the scale of the object shown is moderately small; the human figure seen from the shins to the head would fill the most of screen; so named by the French critics who found this the most frequent framing in American movies. This is also referred to as a medium long shot, especially when human figures are not shown.

plan-sequence

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French term for a scene handled in a single shot, usually a long take; often referring to complex shot including complicated camera movements and actions. Also called sequence shot.

plot

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in a narrative film, all the events that are directly presented in the film, including their causal relations, chronological order, duration, frequency, and spatial locations; as opposed to story, which is the viewer's imaginary construction of all the events in the narrative.

poetic film

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non-narrative film, often experimental. Jonas Mekas' phrase to distinguish New American Cinema from commercial, narrative film.

point-of-view(POV) shot

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a shot taken with the camera placed approximately where the character's eyes would be, representing what the character sees; usually cut in before or after a shot of the character looking.

post synchronization

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the process of adding sound to images after they have been shot and assembled; includes dubbing of voices, inserting diegetic music or sound effects. It is opposite of direct sound

process shot

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any shot involving rephotography to combine two or more images into one, or to create a special effects; also called composite shot.

pull-back shot

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a tracking shot or zoom that moves back from the subject to reveal the context of the scene.

pushover

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a type of wipe in which the succeeding image appears to push the preceding one off the screen.

R

rack

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a term used to describe the mounting of certain types of audio visual equipment - especially in outside broadcast vehicles and recording studios.

Rack mounted equipment always conforms to a standard width of 19 inches (approximately 40 cms) hence the term 19| rack mount. The height of a standard piece of 19" rack equipment is known as 1U or one unit. This can be as high as 2m3 or 4 units depending on the equipments role. ("Half U" means rack equipment that is able to it in pairs along side each other in 1 rack unit or "U"

Rack mixers are mixers designed to mount into 19" rack mounting cabinets.


rack focus

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shifts the area of sharp focus from one plane to another during a shot thereby directing the attention of the viewer forcibly from one subject to another.

rapports de production

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In Marxian thought, the relationships in the productive system between producer, distributer, and consumer.

rate

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in shooting, the number of frames exposed per second; in projection, the number of frames thrown on the screen per second. If the two are same, the speed of action appears normal while a disparity will create slow or fast motion. The standard rate in sound cinema is 24 frames per second for both shooting and projection (for silent film, it used to be between 16 and 18 frames per second.)

re-establishing shot

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a return to a view of an entire space after a series of closer shots following the establishing shot.

reaction shot

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a shot that cuts away from the main scene or speaker in order to show a character's reaction to it.

realism

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in film, attitude opposed to expressionism that emphasizes the subject as opposed to the director's view of the subject; usually concerns topics of a socially conscious nature, and uses a minimal amount of technique.

rear projection

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a process in which a foreground action is combined with a background action filmed earlier to give impression that actors are in the location of background scene, for instance. The foreground is filmed in studio, against a screen; the background imagery is projected from behind the screen. Largely superseded at present by front projection and matte technique.

reframing

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short panning or tilting movements to adjust for the figures' movements, keeping them onscreen or centred.

rhetorical form

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a type of filmic organization in which the parts create and support an argument.

rhythm

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the perceived rate and regularity of sounds, series of shots, and movements within the shots. Rhythmic factors include beat (or pulse), accent (or stress), and tempo (or pace).

roll

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the rotation of camera around the axis that runs from the lens to the subject. This is not common because its effect usually disorients the viewer.

rotoscope

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a machine that projects live-action motion picture film frames one by one onto a drawing pad so that an animator can trace the figures in each frame. The aim is to achieve more realistic movement in an animated cartoon.

rushes

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prints of takes that are made immediately after a day's shooting so that they can be examined before the next day's shooting begins.

S

scene

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a segment in a narrative film that takes place in one time and space (or that uses crosscutting to show two or more simultaneous actions).

screen direction

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the right-left relationship in a scene, set up in an establishing shot and determined by the position of characters and objects in the frame, by the directions of movement, and by the character's eyelines. Continuity editing will attempt to keep screen direction consistent between shots. See axis of action, eyeline match, 180-degree system.

screwball comedy

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a type of comedy prevalent in 1930's and typified by frenetic action, wisecracks, and sexual relationships as an important plot element; usually about upper-class characters and therefore often involving opulent sets and costumes a visual elements; highly verbal as opposed to its predecessor, the slapstick comedy. Examples include It Happened One Night and Brining Up Baby

scrim

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Sample Scrims

A selection of metal lighting scrims (note the half and graduated scrims that reduce the beam of light by the level of fineness in the meshing) Image ©Cirrolite
Many Film and TV productions often use constant lighting in the studio and on location, and because some types of bulbs cannot be electrically dimmed because of their design, scrims are used to reduce the intensity of the light.

This is because tungsten / incandescent bulbs will progressively change in colour temperature, becoming more orange, as they are dimmed.

Scrims are therefore regarded as a “colour safe” alternative to electrically dimming lights, and are a fine wire mesh available in different strengths, placed directly in front of the light.

A half scrim, as the name suggests, has only has the mesh half way across, which will allow the full intensity of light to fall on part of a scene. A graduated scrim varies the intensity of light from across it.



segmentation

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the process of dividing a film into parts for analysis.

semiology, semiotics

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theory of criticism pioneered by Roland Barthes in literature and Christian Metz, Umberto Eco, and Peter Wollen in film. It uses the theories of modern linguistics, especially Ferdinand de Saussure's concept of signification, as a model for the description of the operation of various cultural languages, such as film, television, body language, and written and spoken languages.

sequence

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a term commonly used for moderately large segment of a film, involving one complete stretch of action and consisting of one or more scenes.

Set light

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In lighting theory, the ‘set light’ (aka background light) is the light used in a traditional lighting setup to illuminate the background or studio ‘set’ to give an audience a clearer picture of the location of the film composition as well as creating additional debt and separation from the subject or person in the foreground.

The concept of set light should not be confused with that of ‘working light’ which is simply like used on location to assist cast and crew in day-to-day activity on the set, working light is not used or seen in the final composition. in some circumstances working light may refer also to available light in a given filming location, for example daylight entering through a window.

shallow focus

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a restricted depth of field, which keeps only those planes close to the camera in sharp focus; the opposite of deep focus.

shallow space

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staging the action in relatively few planes of depth; the opposite of deep space.

short

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a film usually less than 30 minutes in length.

shot (1)

(Last edited: Tuesday, 30 July 2013, 4:41 PM)
in shooting, one uninterrupted run of the camera to expose a series of frames. Also called a take.

shot (2)

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In the finished film, one uninterrupted image with a single (static or mobile) framing.

shot/reverse shot

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two or more shots edited together that alternate characters, typically in a conversation situation. In continuity editing, characters in one framing usually look left, in the other framing, right. Over-the-shoulder framings are common in shot/reverse-shot editing.

side lighting

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lighting coming from one side of a person or a object, usually in order to create a sense of volume, to bring out surface tensions, or to fill in areas left shadowed by light from another source.

sign

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in semiology, the basic unit of signification composed of signifier (which carries the meaning) and signified (which is the concept or thing signified). In written language, for example, the word "tree" is the signifier, the idea of the tree the signified; the whole sign is comprised of both elements. In cinema, the signified, the idea of tree, remains the same, but the signifier, the image (or even the sound) of the tree is much more complex. See semiology.

simultaneous sound

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diegetic sound that is represented as occurring at the same time in the story as the image it accompanies.

size diminution

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a cue for suggesting represented depth in the image by showing objects that are further away as smaller than foreground objects.

slapstick

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a type of comedy, widely prevalent during the silent film era, which depends on broad physical action and pantomime for its effect rather than verbal wit.

soft lighting

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lighting that avoids harsh bright and dark areas, creating a gradual transition from highlights to shadows.

sound bridge

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at the beginning of a scene, the sound from the previous scene carries over briefly before the sound from the new scene begins. Or conversely, at the end of a scene, the sound from the next scene is heard, leading into that scene.

sound over

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any sound that is not represented as being directly audible within the space and time of the images on the screen. This includes both non-simultaneous diegetic sounds and nondiegetic sounds.

sound perspective

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the sense of a sound's position in space, yielded by volume, timbre, pitch, and, in stereophonic reproduction systems, binaural information.

space

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At minimum, any film displays a two-dimensional graphic space, the flat composition of the image. In films which depict recognizable objects, a three-dimensional space is represented as well, which may be directly depicted as onscreen space, or suggested as offscreen space. In narrative film, one can also distinguish between story space, the locale of the totality of the action (whether shown or not) and plot space, the locales visibly and audibly represented in the scenes.

special effects

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a general term for various photographic manipulations that create fictitious spatial relations in the shot, such as superimposition, matte shots, and rear projection.

spill

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light rays, from spotlights and other focused light sources, that are not useful, e.g., producing lighting where it is not wanted on a stage.

Also a phenomenon caused by reflections of green light from Chroma key (green) backgrounds (creating a green shading on chins and faces during news interviews)

Storyboard

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Subjective Camera

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POV shot or a (subjective camera) is a camera angle or framing that shows what a character (the subject) is looking at (represented through the camera). It is usually established by being placed between a shot of a character looking at something, and a shot showing the character's reaction (reverse shot).

Subjective camera may often also include situations where a camera viewpoint implies or suggests the emotional outlook of a character within the scene through showing their viewpoint, or that of another character in that scene.

surrealism

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a movement in painting and film during the 1920's best represented by Salvador Dali and Luis Bunuel; also a film style reminiscent of that movement, either fantastic or psychologically distortive.

synchronous sound

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sound that is matched temporally with movements occurring in the images, as when dialogue corresponds to lip movements.

T

take

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a version of a shot; in filmmaking, the shot produced by one uninterrupted run of the camera. One "shot" in the final film may be chosen from among several "takes" of the same action.

technique

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any aspect of the film medium that can be chosen and manipulated in making a film

telephoto lens

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a lens of long focal length that affects a scene's perspective by enlarging distant places and making them seem closer to the foreground planes. In 35mm filming, a lens of 75mm length or more. Normal lens for 35mm filming would be a lens of 35mm to 50mm.

The UK Film Council

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The UK Film Council is the Government-backed lead agency for film in the UK ensuring that the economic, cultural and educational aspects of film are effectively represented at home and abroad.

theatre of cruelty

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Antonin Artaud's theory of theatre that emphasizes the stage as a concrete physical space requiring its own physical language. By "cruelty" Artaud meant a theater was difficult in that it insisted on the involvement of the spectator in the theatrical process; it sought to be free from "subjugation to the text," and return to basic, mystical, cathartic qualities.

three-point lighting

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a common arrangement using three directions of light on a scene: from behind the subject(backlighting), from one bright source(key light), and from a less bright source balancing the key light (fill light).

tilt

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a camera movement by swivelling upward or downward on a stationary support. It produces a mobile framing that scans the space vertically.

top lighting

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lighting coming from above a person or object, usually in order to outline the upper areas of the figure or to separate it more clearly from the background.

tracking shot

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a mobile framing that travels through space forward, backward, or laterally. It could move on tracks or dolly, or hand-held. Also called "travelling shot."

Tungsten

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Tungsten is a chemical element, a hard rare metal, vanadium tungsten deriving from the Swedish language 'tung sten' directly translatable as meaning a heavy stone.

Because of the unusually high melting point of this metal, it is used in alloy form for the creation of incandescent lightbulb filaments, as such and due to its popularity the majority of incandescent lightbulbs are referred to in lighting has tungsten, or tungsten lighting. Tungsten lighting due to the chemical properties of the metal filaments appears as a slightly reddish or orange hue to cameras which have not been colour balanced

typage

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a performance technique of Soviet Montage cinema whereby an actor seeks to represent or characterize a social class or other group.

U

UKfilmNet

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UkfilmNet is an online resource accessible to teachers, students and film fans who want to improve their knowledge of both the theory and practice of film and television

UKfilmNet is unique in being a collection of the expertise and experience of a very wide range of industry practitioners who are leaders in their respective fields. Experts are drawn from filmmaking, lighting, animators, storyboard professionals, producers and many other roles.

The Experts are drawn from the leading providers of industry know how including the BBC, BSkyB, The Director's Guild, The Guild of TV Cameramen, The Society of Television Lighting Directors and many other organisations at the heart of the UK film and TV industry.

underlighting

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lighting from a point below the figures in the scene.

unity

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the degree to which a film's parts relate systematically to each other and provide motivations for all the elements used.

V

variation

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in the film form, the return of an element with notable changes.

verisimilitude

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the quality of appearing to be true or real.

viewing time

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the length of time it takes to watch a film when it is projected at the appropriate speed.

W

whip pan

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an extremely fast movement of camera from side to side, which causes the image to blur into a set of indistinct horizontal lines briefly. Often imperceptible cut joins two whip pans to create a trick transition between scenes.

Wide-angle

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Wide-angle is a term used either to describe a type of lens ‘wide-angle lens’ with a focal length of generally shorter than 30mm which gives a wide field of view due to its optical properties, or alternatively is a term used more generally to describe a shot that encompasses a large field of view ‘wide-angle shot’

wide-angle lens

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a lens of short focal length that affects the scene's perspective by distorting straight lines near the edges of the frame and by exaggerating the distance between foreground and background planes. In 35mm filming, a wide-angle lens is 30mm or less. Produces the opposite effect of telephoto lens.

wind gag

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wind Gag - A Wind gag is a usually soft fur covered sheath that slides over microphones of all sizes to prevent the rushing sound caused by wind passing over sensitive mics

wipe

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a transition between shots in which a line passes across the screen, eliminating the first shot as it goes and replacing it with the next one.

worm's eye view

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A worm's-eye view is a view of an object from below, as though the observer were a worm. It can also mean perceiving something from a humble position. Contrast with bird's-eye view. A worms eye view is a view from close to the ground.

X

XLR

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XLR - The XLR connector is an electrical connector design. XLR plugs and sockets are used mostly in professional audio and video electronics cabling applications, often for microphones.

Home audio and video electronics normally use RCA (or phono) connectors for line level signals generated by a preamplifier - or sometimes "jack plugs". Phone plugs are also used for microphones in home and computer applications.

The names comes from its original manufacturer, James H. Cannon, founder of Cannon Electric in Los Angeles, California (now part of ITT Corporation), the connector is colloquially known as a cannon plug or cannon connector. Originally the "Cannon X" series, subsequent versions added a Latch ("Cannon XL") and then a Rubber compound surrounding the contacts, which led to the abbreviation XLR.[1] Many companies now make XLRs. The initials "XLR" have nothing to do with the pinout of the connector. XLR connectors can have other numbers of pins besides three.

Z

zoom

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Shot which moves closer to, or away from, the subject using the lens rather than moving the whole camera in or out.

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